Services and Celebration of Life will be held on August 23, 2014 at 11 a.m and a visitation at 9 a.m at Old River Baptist Church
Those who have attended the Old River Christmas Party at the Chambers County Community Building on FM 565 will remember Ronnie and his wife Jessica as Mr. and Mrs. Santa Claus.
For years these two giving people dressed up for the kids and the community to put smiles on the faces of all!
A fund has been set up for the family at http://www.gofundme.com/d88y64. Give back to the family as they have given to us.
Ronnie Galloway Jr., a resident of Old River, Texas, passed away on August 18, 2014. He was 42.
It’s always a joy to look toward heaven, but this weekend will make it especially grand! The largest Supermoon of 2014 and the Perseids Meteor Shower at the same time will be occurring! Grab the mosquito spray and “get outside”!
Like all full moons, this month’s full moon on August 10 has many names. It’s the Sturgeon Moon in North America, harking back to bygone centuries when this large fish roamed plentifully in the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay. The August full moon is also known as the Green Corn Moon or the Grain Moon. In 2014, the August 10 full moon also gives us this year’s closest supermoon. According to NASA, this full moon will be 14% closer and 30% brighter than other full moons of the year.
As measured from the centers of the Earth and moon, the August 10 full moon lies 356,896 kilometers (221,675 miles) away. The moon and Earth won’t make such a close encounter again until the full moon of September 28, 2015, at which time the two will only be 19 kilometers closer together.
At United States’ time zones, the moon will turn full on August 10 at 2:09 p.m. EDT, 1:09 p.m. CDT, 12:09 p.m. MDT and 11:09 a.m. PDT.
The prolific Perseids show up once a year, in August, filling the night sky with as many as 80 shooting stars an hour.
Super moons bring with them 30% more light. That’s a problem as it makes the meteors less visible.
Still, the two events together make this a good few days to spend some time outside at night.
The shower’s peak will come in the hours before dawn Aug. 11-13, Burress says.
Look in the constellation Perseus, which is just to the left of the Pleiades, the Seven Sisters constellation, in the northeastern portion of the sky.
Normally, a bright moon would dim the visibility of meteors, but the Perseids have bright meteors, so “it’s not a complete washout,” Burress says. “But it won’t be nearly as good as it would if the moon wasn’t up.”
Another option is to look as night falls, when the moon is low in the east, according to Alan MacRobert, senior editor at Sky & Telescope magazine.
This year’s Perseid shower won’t be the wild, showy 80 meteors per hour that can happen when they arrive during moonless nights. Even so, a shooting star or two reminds us that looking heavenward is always rewarding.
And if you don’t see a meteor, you’ll still get to see a super moon.
(AUSTIN) — Texas Comptroller Susan Combs reminds shoppers the annual sales tax holiday is scheduled for this Friday, Saturday and Sunday, Aug. 8 -10.
The law exempts most clothing, footwear, school supplies and backpacks priced under $100 from sales tax, which could save shoppers about $8 on every $100 they spend during the weekend.
Lists of apparel and school supplies that may be purchased tax free can be found on the Comptroller’s website at www.TexasTaxHoliday.org.
This year, shoppers will save an estimated $82.7 million in state and local sales taxes during the Sales Tax Holiday.
The tax holiday weekend has been an annual event since 1999.
Gov. Rick Perry has launched a public service announcement (PSA) to raise awareness of state resources available to help Texas veterans navigate the Veterans Administration (VA) health care system. Texas has increased staffing for the Texas Veterans Hotline in response to failures by the VA system to adequately care for our nation’s veterans.
“Texas has a long and proud tradition of taking care of those who protect and defend our freedom,” Gov. Perry said. “As Texans and Americans, it is our responsibility to step up where others have fallen short and to make sure our veterans know we are grateful for their service and will honor the commitments our nation has made to them. It’s my sincere hope the confirmation of Robert McDonald as VA Secretary begins the process of fixing this broken agency and the broken promises to our veterans.”
In addition to increasing staff for the Texas Veterans Hotline, on June 12, 2014, Gov. Perry asked Texas hospitals and medical clinics to open their doors to Texas veterans who have faced bureaucratic challenges in accessing health care through the VA. More than 300 hospitals and clinics have responded across the state, but cannot begin treating VA patients until the VA gives them authorization and ensures timely reimbursement of the cost of care provided.
The Texas Cable Association and Texas Association of Broadcasters will air the PSA on their respective member networks and on-line throughout the state. The PSA directs veterans to call the Texas Veterans Hotline at 1-800-252-8387 (VETS) for assistance with accessing VA health care benefits.
To view the PSA, please visit here.
The Texas energy boom may be going south – south of the border, that is – as Texas oil and gas companies explore new business possibilities that are opening up throughout Mexico.
The nationalized energy industry of Texas’ southern neighbor and top trading partner is undergoing a sea change. Reversing 76 years of government policy, Pemex (Petróleos Mexicanos), Mexico’s state-run oil and gas monopoly, is opening itself to partnerships – and its fields to exploration and production (E&P) – by private firms. Many Texas-based O&G service companies already subcontract in Mexico, but allowing foreign E&P is a whole new ballgame.
“I didn’t think I’d ever see it in my lifetime,” observed Eric Potter, associate director of the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin. He and his colleagues have conducted extensive research on various O&G formations for Pemex.
While Mexico is already one of the world’s oil-producing giants, economists believe its E&P growth potential is quite strong, given the country’s vast amounts of untapped deposits. The two big unanswered questions now are how attractive Mexico’s business terms will be and how much oil and gas it can supply reliably and profitably.
In December 2013, Mexico’s state legislatures ratified a constitutional amendment that ended decades of public control over both the nation’s electricity and oil and gas industries. Though advanced by an effective coalition, it was still a hard sell given the government’s longstanding, deep-seated dependency on Pemex. Mexico derives 35 percent of its federal budget from oil and gas revenue, according to Alejandra León, associate director of Latin America – Downstream Oil for global economic analysis firm IHS/CERA. Pemex sends the government 65 percent of its income, according to Potter, limiting what’s available for reinvestment. Indeed, energy stagnation due to a lack of development resources bolstered the argument that Mexico would prosper if it brought in private and foreign investors.
Not surprisingly, some critics continue to suggest that Mexico will be shortchanged in the bargain. As Potter notes, the devil is always in the details. The Mexican congress is slowly modifying numerous laws and enacting new ones to implement the transition. The government also is determining how much of its resources Pemex will retain and what will be up for grabs. The outcomes will determine just how much investing there will be in Mexico’s brave new energy world.
Pemex will become one of many players, Potter said, but it will have more flexibility to sell greater interests in what it retains. This will, in turn, generate more operating capital. Given its historical dependence on oil, the Mexican government may still take a sizable cut of E&P revenue, León said, regardless of who is generating it. Nevertheless, both Potter and León think the initial impact of the new law could benefit firms across the entire E&P spectrum, from independent producers to the major global oil companies, perhaps including some Mexican entrepreneurs as well. Potter added that some investors might even negotiate deals and transfer them to others.
“The overall pie should grow, even though Pemex’s share will decrease,” he predicted.
While not outright privatization, the new agreements are expected to be more lucrative than the current performance-based service contracts first allowed in 2008, according to analysts at PFC Energy, a subsidiary of IHS.
They expect Mexico to offer three types of contractual arrangements:
Potter suggested that the business terms – royalties, taxes, and contractual obligations – that emerge will be key. He said potential investors also will need to consider where the opportunities are located and their types.
The opportunities won’t be immediate, says León, and Mexico’s E&P likely won’t be competitive in the near term. “Pemex must decide what it will keep,” she explained.
To date, in what has been dubbed “Round Zero,” Pemex is opting to relinquish its northern Mexico shale plays and some of its deepwater offshore holdings. Both are expensive enterprises requiring extensive, and very different, expertise.
Potter believes it is too early to predict how attractive Mexico’s shale oil and gas plays will be in areas where the geology is complex and largely untested. Pemex has drilled only a half dozen wells in its portion of the Eagle Ford shale compared to more than 8,000 in Texas, he pointed out. Security also is a concern, given that portions of the formation extend southward beneath areas subject to control by Mexican drug cartels. However, there are other similar shale plays in Mexico that may also lure enhanced recovery firms.
Pemex’s deepwater presence in the Gulf of Mexico is currently next to nothing, so it, too, is ripe for development. But only the more financially sound, technically sophisticated players need apply.
Mexico’s energy ministry has until mid-September to decide if Pemex has the capacity to manage and develop the resources it wants to retain or open any of them up to competitive bidding. Then, over the next few years, it must prove itself capable of doing so. Short term, León said, there will be two concurrent systems: one for existing projects and a parallel regulatory framework for newly developed areas. The transition won’t be complete until 2016. Regardless of what the new regulations are, Potter said, they must be administered fairly and ethically in order to work.
The impact on global markets and prices is uncertain. But Potter is confident that the ripple effects in Texas will be positive and pervasive.
While a bit of a mixed metaphor, Potter’s observation is economically true nonetheless: “A drilled well is just the tip of the iceberg.”
There are three positions on the Old River-Winfree City Council coming up for re-election or replacement.
This is your time to make a difference in our community.
No one in Old River-Winfree seems to know these date or doesn’t want to get involved and that is a shame. We need younger people to fill our City Government; to step up with new ideas, fresh perspectives. This will bring new energy into our community and guide us into the future always looking out for the interest of the citizens of Old River-Winfree.
We need the citizens in Old River-Winfree between the ages of 35-55 with life experiences, both personal and business for these three positions.
Question: Can you name the current council members of Old River-Winfree? Do you even know who the Mayor is?
All you need to do is click on the link below and read up on what serving in our town would involve and some rules and regulations.
A couple of quick things to know: To put your name on the Ballot to run for City Council, just go by the Old River-Winfree City Office and ask the City Secretary for an application. Pretty simple really. You must be a resident of Old River-Winfree and pass a background check. Any other information you can glean from the information below.
If you think you or someone you know could really benefit our town, please pass this on to them. It’s either time for a change or to continue with the old status quo (state of affairs of Old River-Winfree continuing the way they have been). Your decision!
Here are the beginning and end dates for filing to get on the ballot:
First Day to File for Place on General Election Ballot 1
Saturday, July 19, 2014 (“first day” does not move)
(NEW LAW: Election Code Sec. 144.005 now provides for a “first day” to file unless otherwise provided by the Election Code.)
Last Day to File for Place on General Election Ballot (for local political subdivisions ONLY) 1
Monday, August 18, 2014 at 5:00 p.m.
Last night around 1:00 a.m. residents were woken by some breaking in to their shed. Chambers County Sheriff’s Department was called and responded immediately.
Be diligent and watch over yourselves and your neighbors. Be your own Neighborhood Watch. If you see something suspicious report it to the Sheriff’s Department.
For non-emergency Phone: 409-267-2500 or call 911 in the Old River-Winfree area in case of an emergency.
Be diligent and take a few precautions that we all know, but need to be reminded of from time to time.
Keep all doors and windows locked. It may sound obvious, but many burglaries are actually unforced – meaning thieves gain entry through back doors and open windows.
House alarms are a great deterrent – but only if they are switched on! A false alarm is better than having treasured possessions stolen or being woken by someone in your home during the wee hours.
Motion sensors put burglars off as crooks don’t want to be under the spotlight when up to no good. The higher up you place them, the wider the area they illuminate.
Don’t leave valuables such as laptops, iPads and games consoles out in full view. Thieves want easy and valuable targets they can grab and carry. Portable devices are just what they are looking for.
Keep your keys away from the front door. A small hand or a bent piece of wire through the letterbox and a skilled thief could snatch your house and car keys.
Electrical items such as hair straighteners, irons and clothes dryers are a fire risk if left switched on and unattended. Unplug electricals and check things are switched off before you head out.
Give the illusion that someone is home by drawing curtains and using timer switches to bring lamps on at different times and maybe a radio to help foil anyone who may be nosing around.
Ladders and tools can come in very handy and make the job of breaking in a lot easier for a visiting burglar. Make sure you store them out of sight.
Garden furniture, outdoor toys, bikes and expensive potted plants are all very tempting. Ensure sheds, gates and garages have secure locks and fix gaps in fences to prevent opportunistic crooks from getting access.
Let neighbours know when you go away, so they can keep an eye on things. But, resist bragging about travels on social media – you never know who is just waiting for an opportune moment.
How high is demand for welders to work in the shale boom on the U.S. Gulf Coast?
“If somebody came to me on the Gulf Coast, some high-school kid, and said, ‘I don’t know what to do with my life,’ I’d tell him, ‘Learn to weld.’”
So high that “you can take every citizen in the region of Lake Charles between the ages of 5 and 85 and teach them all how to weld and you’re not going to have enough welders,” said Peter Huntsman, chief executive officer of chemical maker Huntsman Corp.
So high that local employers say they’re worried there won’t be adequate supply of workers of all kinds. Just for construction, Gulf Coast oil, gas and chemical companies will have to find 36,000 new qualified workers by 2016, according to Industrial Info Resources Inc. in Sugar Land, Texas. Regional estimates call for even more new hires once those projects are built.
The processing and refining industries need so many workers to build new facilities in Texas and Louisiana because of the unprecedented rise over the last three years in U.S. oil and gas production, much of it due to shale. Labor shortages, causing delays in construction, threaten to slow the boom and push back the date when the country can meet its own energy needs, estimated by BP Plc to be in 2035.
Worker scarcities are already evident in the unemployment rates of Texas (5.7 percent) and Louisiana (4.5 percent), both below the national average of 6.7 percent, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Thelowest jobless rate of any area in the U.S. in February was 2.8 percent in Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, Louisiana, because of offshore-oil exploration in the Gulf of Mexico.
Companies will spend $35 billion, more than ever, on expansion projects along the Houston Ship Channel by next year, creating a total of 265,800 jobs, a 2012 Greater Houston Port Bureau survey shows. Louisiana, where $60 billion in building projects are planned through 2016, will need 86,300 workers over that time, according to the state’sWorkforce Commission.
“This is an exponentially larger investment period than Louisiana has ever seen,” said Tom Guarisco, a spokesman for the Workforce Commission in Baton Rouge.
The biggest shortages will be for welders, electricians, instrumentation technicians, fabricators and pipe fitters, according to Roger Blackburn, executive account manager at Infinity Construction Services LP, which employs about 2,500 workers on the Gulf Coast. The scale of the projects means costs and delays will probably escalate, he said.
Labor scarcity can erode profit. Cost run-ups and labor shortages have hindered recent energy-boom projects in Canada and Australia. Wages for oil and gas workers in Canada rose to as much as 60 percent higher than U.S. counterparts, labor data show. In Australia, cooks at offshore projects are earning more than A$350,000 ($328,000) a year while laundry hands get more than A$325,000 and barge welders almost A$400,000, imperiling investments in liquefied natural gas, according to the Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association.
Enterprise Products Partners LP said March 18 that permitting for a facility east of Houston, in Mont Belvieu, Texas, that turns propane into propylene is running three months behind. In December,Royal Dutch Shell Plc canceled a $20 billion gas-to-liquids plant slated for Louisiana, citing potential cost overruns. Construction for three new U.S. natural-gas-processing plants could go as much as 40 percent over budget and finish nine months late, Sergey Vasnetsov, senior vice president of strategic planning at LyondellBasell Industries NV in Houston, said at a March 12 conference in New York.
“There was some tight availability of qualified labor, and so we expect it to be a significant issue for the industry, in particular in 2016, 2017, where the bulk of the heavy construction will take place in the U.S.,” Vasnetsov said at the conference.
Chevron Phillips Chemical Co., a venture between Chevron Corp. and Phillips 66 based in The Woodlands, Texas, broke ground near Houston this month on ethylene and polyethylene plastics plants whose budget will go $1 billion over the original $5 billion estimate, primarily because of labor costs, Chief Executive Officer Peter Cella said in an interview.
“Where are the workers going to come from?” Cella asked.
The answer: from Canada and other countries, and employers are sweetening benefit packages to attract and retain them. These include higher contributions to retirement savings and tuition reimbursement, said Dani Grant, a human resources manager at chemical maker Noltex LLC in La Porte, Texas.
Other companies are tempting workers with gourmet dining, retention bonuses and smoking areas, which are usually not allowed at chemical facilities, said Russell Heinen, a senior director at IHS Inc., an energy company advisory firm in Englewood, Colorado.
Bechtel Corp., the biggest U.S. construction contractor, offers the amenity of running-water toilets, according to Jim Ivany, executive vice president at the San Francisco-based company’s oil, gas and chemicals unit.
When projects in engineering and permitting stages start construction late this year, wages will rise 15 to 20 percent “almost overnight,” similar to what happened in 2006 and 2007 before the global recession, according to Peter Huntsman of Salt Lake City-based Huntsman Corp.
Pay started to rise in the fourth quarter of 2013, said Mike Bergen, an executive vice president at IIR. The most skilled combo-pipe welders on the Gulf Coast earned $34.75 an hour, 2 percent more than in the previous quarter, IIR data show. Wages will grow by about 12 percent a year, IIR estimates.
Austin Khalili, 22, works in a warehouse but wants to become a welder. That’s why he’s enrolled at San Jacinto College’s twice-weekly 10 p.m.-to-2 a.m. welding class, where he can learn the trade, grab a quick nap and still be at his day job by 4 a.m.
“It’s hard sometimes, but it’s going to be worth it,” Khalili said. “I know it’s going to pay off.”
San Jacinto College built the new welding classroom, with 118 booths, at its central campus two years ago. Enrollment has jumped to 435 students. Each booth has its own welding rig and ventilation fan in the warehouse-sized building.
Wearing heavy protective clothing and visors on a humid spring evening, students practiced behind curtains in the booths. Ghostly blue light and sparks scattering on the floor were the only visible evidence of their work welding seams on metal sheets.
Khalili will be able to start earning as much as $28 an hour after completing the class and getting his certificate, according to Tiburcio Parras, head of the welding program. Wages escalate after that, and Parras said that several of his students have gone on to purchase their own trucks and welding rigs, which allows them to earn as much as $7,000 a week working in places such as the Eagle Ford drilling fields in South Texas.
Beauty comes from within. You know the world we are living in. We are obsessed. Please, at the very least, share this with your daughters.
President Obama’s appropriations request only deals with one aspect of the current crisis on our southern border, while barely addressing its root cause: an unsecured border.
Of the $3.7 billion in President Obama’s request, only a small fraction is directly dedicated to border security efforts, which are absolutely essential to resolving this crisis, and avoiding more such crises in the future.
Everything else is only treating a symptom of a much-larger problem. And as we know with treating symptoms, the problems will continue until the root cause is resolved.
As governor of Texas, I’ve been to the border many times, including a June trip to visit a detention facility in McAllen, Texas. The true humanitarian disaster has to be seen to be understood, which is why it’s essential the president make his own trip there as soon as possible.
The fact is, this is a crisis created by failed federal policy, and a lack of will to dedicate the resources necessary to secure the border, once and for all.
This has been a problem for a long time. In Texas, we’ve spent more than $500 million since 2005 to supplement border protection, fighting transnational gangs and drug cartels conducting criminal activities in the border region. With the influx of immigrants further straining the existing federal resources that already weren’t sufficient for the job, we’ve expanded our efforts to combat those elements seeking to take advantage of the situation.
President Obama should make securing the border the top priority in resolving this crisis. To begin with, he should send 1,000 National Guard troops to the Texas-Mexico border to support operations until sufficient Border Patrol agents can be hired, trained and deployed.
He should also direct the Federal Aviation Administration to allow drone flights along the border to identify and track those engaging in drug or human trafficking.
Ignoring the core problem will only cause more hardship, encouraging more people to leave their families and risk their lives to cross a desert in the middle of summer.
My hope is that Congress will expand measures that will enable us to finally secure the border, and that President Obama will sign it into law.
Gov. Rick Perry today issued the following statement supporting Israel in its ongoing conflict with Hamas:
“Israel has an absolute right and responsibility to defend its people against any and all terrorist attacks, including the vicious rocket attacks by Hamas and other terrorist groups against civilian targets in Israel’s cities and towns. As Israel’s long-time friend and partner, it’s the United States’ responsibility and honor to stand with the Israeli people during this difficult time. Israel is our closest ally in the Middle East, and we offer our complete solidarity with her today as she faces these attacks with courage and determination. Our prayers are with everyone in danger’s path, as are our hopes for a timely and lasting peace.”
If it’s not too cloudy tonight, you may be startled by the size of the moon.
Read more at ttp://www.wnd.com/2014/07/first-the-blood-moon-now-the-supermoon/#dbS8mrPCa64QiFc1.99
And the discoverer of the blood moons phenomenon, Pastor Mark Biltz, author of “Blood Moons” and the inspiration for a documentary movie of the same name, sees a connection to the “signs in the sun, moon and stars” promised in the Bible.
This weekend’s sky show will be strongest at 7 p.m. Eastern Saturday when the moon will be large and strangely luminous. It will also be just 222,611 miles away from Earth and in what is known as its perigee. Full moons vary in size because of the oval shape of its orbit and its elliptical path around Earth. When in perigee, the moon is around 50,000 km closer than when it is furthest away, or in apogee.
But an even better show is coming later this summer on Aug. 10 when the moon will be 863 miles closer than on Saturday, and will become full on the same hour as perigree and will appear at its brightest in 2014.
Unlike solar eclipses and other celestial treats, Supermoons occur every 13 months and 18 days. The last time a supermoon made headlines was in June last year, when it appeared to be 14 percent bigger and 30 per cent brighter.
The distance of the moon from Earth varies in its orbit because the orbit is elliptical. The average distance from Earth to the Moon is 238,900 miles. When you have a combination of a full moon that is also closer it is considered a Supermoon. Typically, it is said, this occurs about once a year. But this summer there will be three in a row – July 12, Aug. 10 and Sept. 9.
But, to appreciate what these astronomical signs mean from a biblical standpoint, Biltz says you must check the biblical calendar – sometimes referred to as the “Jewish calendar.”
“Amazingly, according to the biblical calendar months these fall in the month of Tammuz when Israel worshiped the golden calf, the month of Av, when the 10 spies brought the evil report and when the Temple was destroyed twice on the same day, and the month of Elul, which is the month of repentance,” says Biltz, who discovered the blood moon tetrad occurring in 2014 and 2015 coincides with Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles in those successive years. “There is also added significance as it precedes a Shemitah year, or the seventh year of the seven-year cycle beginning this Rosh Hashanah. Next year, it happens again!”
Biltz, of El Shaddai Ministries in Tacoma, Washington, points out that in Genesis, God said He created the sun and the moon for signals about coming events.
“Are we watching?” he asks.
A friend named Danny was coaching baseball at Riesel ISD in the early 1970’s. During practice one of his players hit a long foul ball that landed where the high school band was practicing. A trombone player, Joey, picked up the baseball and threw it all the way back past the home plate backstop! Danny immediately sent one of his players to find the person who threw that ball. Joey exchanged a trombone for a baseball and became the team’s starting pitcher. They went on to win the state championship.
Has the Lord placed an opportunity at your feet? Pick it up. He has a great plan waiting for you. “For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them.” (Ephesians 2:10)
Danny R. Biddy, Pastor of the Church on Old River since 1977. www.oldriverbaptist.com
The Declaration is not divided into formal sections; but it is often discussed as consisting of five parts: Introduction, the Preamble, the Indictment of George III, theDenunciation of the British people, and the Conclusion.
Asserts as a matter of Natural Law the ability of a people to assume political independence; acknowledges that the grounds for such independence must be reasonable, and therefore explicable, and ought to be explained.
In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
Outlines a general philosophy of government that justifies revolution when government harms natural rights.
|We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.|
A bill of particulars documenting the king’s “repeated injuries and usurpations” of the Americans’ rights and liberties.
|Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness of his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these states
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
This section essentially finished the case for independence. The conditions that justified revolution have been shown.
|Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.|
The signers assert that there exist conditions under which people must change their government, that the British have produced such conditions, and by necessity the colonies must throw off political ties with the British Crown and become independent states. The conclusion contains, at its core, the Lee Resolution that had been passed on July 2.
|We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.|
The first and most famous signature on the engrossed copy was that of John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress. Two future presidents, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, and a father and great-grandfather of two other presidents, Benjamin Harrison, were among the signatories. Edward Rutledge (age 26), was the youngest signer, and Benjamin Franklin (age 70) was the oldest signer. The fifty-six signers of the Declaration represented the new states as follows (from north to south):